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dissertation. REFLECTION ON LITERATURE REVIEW.

Presented by. Daniel T Magogo.

 

A: THE TITLE OF THE STUDY.

 

HEADTEACHERS’ PERCEPTIONS ON THEIR ROLES AND EMERGING CHALLENGES UNDER PRIMARY EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME (PEDP) IMPLIMENTATION IN TANZANIA: A CASE STUDY OF MKURANGA DISTRICT.

Written by: Perpetua Wilbert Vengue.

MASTER OF ARTS IN EDUCATION, THE UNIVERSIITY OF DODOMA

AUGUST, 2010.

B: THE OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY AND HYPOTHESIS/QUESTIONS.

1.4: Specifically the study has the following objectives;

(i.)            To examine the extent of difference to performance in head teachers’ roles.

(ii.)            To examine the perception of head teacher in their roles under PEDP.

(iii.)            To determine challenges facing head teachers in practicing their roles under PEDP.

1.5: Research Questions.

The study intended to answer the following questions.

(i.)            To which extent do head teachers understand and practice their roles under PEDP?

(ii.)            How do head teacher perceptions of their roles influence their practice within PEDP implementation?

(iii.)            What challenges do head teacher face when practicing their duties under PEDP implementation?

C: ANALYSIS OF LITERATURE REVIEW.

                                                       CHAPTER TWO.

The literature review found in this chapter has several sub-titles as identified below with their subtitle number as listed in the above titles dissertation title which relate to the research objectives and hypothesis question as follows;

2.1: INTRODUCTION.

The literature review is going to give the theoretical stance of the study, definition of key terms, concept of educational administration and leadership, role of head teachers and their practice has been discussed. This introduction show the reader in a nutshell the content that will be covered to fulfill the needs listen in the objective and the answers for the proposed hypothesis and questions of the study.

2.2: The Theoretical Stance.

This study is influenced by classical management theory of administration, where an idea of organization seems to be hierarchical in nature of authority.

Bebyegeya(2002), contends that the original concepts of classical management lay four principles which are line and staff span of control unit of command and delegation of responsibility. It is assumed that those at the top of the organization have insight and full understanding of workers and everything that is taking place at the shop floor.

For that case head teacher needs to have knowledge and skills to foster school system.

In the field of research everything has its own background, and there are some theoretical perspectives that can guide the study of the particular research title. This research is about the headmasters roles which are under management category of implementation of organizational goals. There fore the researcher related the theoretical stance to the classical management theory as it relates to the research study which is the role of the headmasters as the administrators and the managers.

2.3: Definition of Key Terms.

Perceptions

Bagandashwa(1993) defines perception both as experience of gaining sensory information about the world of people, things and events on one hand, and psychological process to be accomplished on the other hand. In this study, the term is used to mean head teacher, awareness, views and opinions on the process of implication of (PEDP)

 

Other definitions were on management by Phatak (1989) and administration by Adams cited in Ozigi (1995)

            This sub-title relate to research objectives and research questions as one can not move to the detailed explanation of some thing which the reader of that particular literature is no aware of. The explanation of the key terms found in the research is the prior stage of implementing the research objectives.

2.4: The Concept of Educational Administration.

As dread being defined on educational administration, Educational administration is concerned with the development and implementation of appropriate programs for teaching and learning. According to Babyegeya (2002) educational administration is responsible with making available and managing resources that are necessary to implement teaching and learning.

This subtitle marks the beginning of the researcher to explore and implement research objectives and in other way round to answer the research questions. For example the first question asks “To which extent do head teachers understand and practice their roles under PEDP?” where by this sub-title introduces us to the knowledge of understand about on the role of a head teacher as administrator.

2.5: The Roles of the Head Teachers.

The school administrator is essentially a leader of the staff and student of the school Babyegeya (2002) express that, head teacher become both administrators and professional leaders due to their responsibility. As already been mentioned school heads perform different responsibility include the planning, organizing and managing the school resources.

Among other roles head teacher are expected to do the following main roles.

2.5.1: Monitoring the Curriculum Implementation

2.5.2: Facilitation of Teaching and Learning.

2.5.3: Insuring the Availability of the Learning and Teaching Materials.

2.5.4: Maintaining Pupils and Staff Welfare.

2.5.5: Maintaining School Physical Facilities.

2.5.6: Communication Enhancement.

2.5.7: Delegation of Duties.

2.5.8: Disciplinary Issue.

            From this sub-title we can be able to trace the sources of the challenges that headmasters face in implementing their roles in their workplaces as it shows directly the responsibility of the headmaster as a head of organization.

2.6: Essential of Head Teachers Roles and Their Practice.

Basing on this concise review, head teachers are executive of the school. According to Omari (1995) management can make the work climate more favourable and challenging and can build cohesiveness between staffs, student and the community.

Success and failure of school and of the education system in general, among other things depends on leadership and administration. Babyegeya (2002).

In this subtitle the essentials of the head teachers are output that the community and other educational stake holders can physically observe, this bringd us to the concept that the head teachers perceptions of their roles can easy be measured through the out put that the particular headteacher gives out. This concept takes us to the second objective and the second research question centered on the perception of the headmasters on their roles.

D: Reference study.

In this dissertation the references are shown in short form in side of the research. These short forms appeared differently according to where they appeared in within the paragraph. For when they appeared at the beginning of the text only the year was enclosed in the brackets leaving outside the bracket the name of the author. For example.

  • Bagandashwa, (1993) defines perception both as …
  • The school administrator is essentially a leader of the staff and student of the school Babyegeya (2002)…

And the same references appeared in their full forms at the end of the text. They are written beginning with the sir name of the author followed by his or her initials, then comes the year of publication followed by the name of the book (in italic), then publisher of the book followed by the name of the place of publication. The following is examples of references as appeared at the end of the dissertation in the reference section arranged in alphabetical ascending order.

 

Babyegeya, E. (2002). Educational Planning and Administration: The Open University of Tanzania. Dar-es-Salaam.

Coombs, P.H. (1968). The World Educational Crisis: A System in Education: Oxford University Press. London.

Ozigi, A. (1995) A Hand Back On School Administration Mac Milan Education Ltd. London.

THE ROLE OF GOOD HEALTH AND NUTRITION IN INFLUENCING PRIMARY SCHOOL STUDENT’S ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE.

DESIGNED BY, MAGOGO, Daniel T.

The University Of Dodoma.

CHAPTER ONE.

1.1: Study objectives.

The objectives of this study are as follows;

(i.)            To find out to what extent are the teachers and students in primary schools awareness of the importance of good health and nutrition to the academic performance.

(ii.)            To explain and show in detail the nutrients which are required for good health and nutrition to facilitate good academic performance in primary schools.

(iii.)            To show the important advantages of good health and nutrition to the primary school students’ academic performance.

1.2: Study questions.

The study intends to answer the following questions.

(i.)            Are the teachers and students aware of that they should consider good health and nutrition to the academic performance in primary schools?

(ii.)            Do the teacher and students aware of the nutrients/content which are required for good health and nutrition to foster good academic performance in primary schools?

(iii.)            Do the educational stakeholders know the importance of good health and nutrition to the primary school academic performance?

1.3: Introduction.

The literature review is going to give the theoretical stance of the study, important facts about good health and nutrition and the necessity of taking it to consideration good health and nutrition to foster good academic performance in primary school students. But before that there are important terms to be defined as follows;

1.3.1: Health

1.3.2: Nutrition

1.3.3: Academic performance.

1.4: The theoretical stance.

1.5: Important facts about good health and nutrition.

The following pyramid shows the proportional amount of food which contains nutrients that are important to the good health and nutrition. Where by the ration of the amount of food that a person should at least take in day is show from the top part of the pyramid to the lower part, where the privelage of the amount of food that should be taken decreases as the pyramid goes higher. This means that it is very important for a person to take bread, cereal, and vegetable groups at the bottom than taking fats, oil, and sweets at the top of the pyramid. (Graham, G.1980)

 

Figure 1.1: Food and Nutrition Guide Pyramid.

Fig 1.1 USDA. Food Guide pyramid.

Source: from directory guideline and your health by US Department of Agriculture, 1992, Rockville M D

Concepts about nutrition as proposed by Graham, G. (1980)

  • Physical activities and good nutrition are the team for good health and well-being
  • The body needs food for energy; the body needs energy for activities.
  • Food is the fuel that makes activity possible; too little fuel, too little energy
  • Some fat is essential to supply energy and to insulate and cushion vital organs.
  • Carbohydrate supply energy to muscles for muxmum performance. They are main fuel source for the muscles.
  • Proteins are needed to form strong bones and muscles. They are the buildant blocks of body tissues.
  • Water makes up 50-70 percent of total body weight and is critical for surviving. The more active you are, the more water you need.
  • Good nutrition is essential for people of all ages.
  • The amount of energy a person need depend on body size, age, gender, health status and activity.

Teachers should remember to model good nutrition and fitness habits in their own lifestyle and make the evident in the environment in which they work with children.

A number of factors have contributed to the state of poor nutrition among school age children. A large number of children are responsible for their own meals, especially breakfast and after school snacks. Children do not choose fruits and vegetables as a favorite snack; neither do young children have the knowledge or skills to prepare health meal or snacks. For many children, the foods needed for good nutrition are not available in their homes. (Graham, G.1980)

Thus by choice and by circumstances many children are the victims of poor nutrition.

All too often the quickest meal is one from a drive-though one that is high in fats and low in the balanced of nutrients needed for good health.

Although elementary age children may not be interested in nutrition for good health (after all they are immortal) we have found that they are very interested in nutrition as if relates to running, jumping, throwing and being a better athlete and good academician in learning environment.

Children at primary education level need and understand of the food guide pyramid in (figure 1.1.), the teaching of good nutrition as a wellness concept, with its’ link to physical activities as well as good health, makes it an ideal concept for integrating it with good academic performance in the classroom situation.

Thus the desire to good academic performance of primary school students opens the door to educating children about the importance of eating balanced diet and insisting on fruits and vegetables and decreasing fats and motivates them to maintain a balance of physical activity and nutrition.

1.6: Advantages of Good Health and Nutrition to Academic Performance.

The following table shows the source of different nutrient and their advantages or roles in the brain function which helps in better academic performance of the student in the primary schools level.

Figure 1.2

Source Of Nutrient And Their Roles In Brain Functioning

Nutrient

Common Food Source

Role In Cognitive Function.

Iron Liver, spinach, asparagus, clams, beans, peas, enriched bread, cereal

  • Transport oxygen to brain
  • Involved in red blood cell formation
    • Deficiencies can impaire the children’s ability to concentrate(Pollitt, 1933)

Protein Meat, fish, seafood, eggs, dairy protein, grains producs, legumes

  • Provides the amino acid tyrosine needed for the release of key neurotransmittwrs, resulting in increased alertness and motivation. (Wurtman, 1988)

Fat Oil, salad dressings, butter, margarine, lard layers on meat, most fats are hidden because they are added during food preparation

  • In combination with protein, sustains glucose breakdown longer
  • Carrier of fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K and essential fatty acids, which form nerve cell membranes.
  • Over- or under-consumption can trigger a neurotransmitter imbalance (Garrison & Somer, 1995).

CholineProduced in the body and provided in several food

sources: egg yolks, meat, wheat germ, peanuts, soybeans

  • Needed to produce acetylcholine
  • Low levels have been associated with memory loss.
  • May improve memory performance (Mark & Mark, 1989).

B VitaminsB1(thiamin): enriched breads and cereals, pork, peas, pecans

B6: chicken, fish, whole grains, egg yolks, bananas, avocados

B12: liver, meat, eggs, dairy

products

  • B1: promotes the body’s ability to use glucose. Deficiency can result in mood changes and reduced attention span (Garrison & Somer, 1995).
  • B6: involved in acetylcholine metabolism and activity.  Deficiency can impair memory (Garrison & Somer, 1995).
  • B12: supports formation and maintenance of myelin sheaths that surround nerve cells.  Inadequate intake results in memory loss, confusion, and impaired physical function (Garrison & Somer, 1995).

Antioxidants

(vitamins A & E)

Vitamin A: liver, eggs, cheese, milk, yellow and orange vegetables  Vitamin E: dark leafy vegetables, cabbage, eggs, tomatoes

  • Vitamin A helps cell growth and fights infection.
  • Vitamins E & A protect brain and body against free radicals, which cause cell destruction.
  • Vitamin E deficiency can affect the nervous system by interfering with the normal nerve myelination (Garrison & Somer, 1995).

 

The simple activity that can help increase student attention, decrease illness and absenteeism, and increase test scores is eating breakfast. Breakfast consumption reduces the physical symptoms of stomach pain, headache, muscles tension, and fatigue, all of which interfere with learning. Making sure that students have breakfast goes long way toward facilitating their success. School personnel should recognize that they have a unique opportunity to reinforce the importance of breakfast, whether consumed at home or through their school’s breakfast program. Several researches shows that children who eat breakfast have improved attention in late-morning task performance, retrieve information more quickly and accurately, make fewer errors in problem-solving activities and concentrate better and perform more complex task.

REFERENCE:

Garrison, R., & Somer, E., (1995), The Nutrition Desk Reference. New Canaan, CT: Keats Publishing.

Graham, G (1980) Children Moving, Reflexive Approach To Teaching Physical Education: (5th Ed): Mayfield Publishing Company. USA

Mark, J., & Mark, V. (1989). Brain Power. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Wurtman, J. (1988), Managing Your Mind And Mood Through Food. New York: Harper & Row.

nuts &cheese. Group 2-3 servings.

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What are the causes of linguistic change?

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Language change is the phenomenon where phonetics, morphological, semantic, and syntactic and other features of language vary over time. The effect of language change over time is known as Diachronic Change. The two linguistic disciplines in particular language concern themselves with studying language change. (Altintas, K. et al 2007)

Language change is both obvious and rather mysterious. The English of the late 14th C for example is so different to modern English that without special training is difficult to understand the opening lives to the Romance of the Rose cited above. Not only would these sentences have a foreign sound, but words and structure such as Sweveninges, Lesynges and false nabene are unfamiliar.

The existence of such differences between early and late variants of the same language raises questions as to how and why languages changes overtime. Historical linguistic is concerned with both description and explanation of language change. Language changes in all aspect of grammar, phonology, morphology, syntax and semantics.

Historical Linguistics began in the late 18th C, when Western European scholars began to notice that some modern European languages shared similar linguistic characteristics with Ancient languages such as Sanskrit, Latin and Greek. These similarities led Linguistics to believe that most of today’s European languages and those Ancient languages must have evolved from a single ancestor or mother language called Proto-indo European. Although these languages come from common ancestor which is Proto-Indo-European and spread to form different languages over the world.

Thus, the language changes are the effects by the followings reasons:

Analogy and Reanalysis by O’Grady et al, (1997) said that Cognitive factors also play a role in change in all components of grammar. Two sources of change having a Cognitive basis are Analogy and Reanalysis. Analogy reflects the preference of speakers for regular patterns over Irregular ones. It typically involves the extension or generalization of a regularity on the basis the inference that it elements are alike in the same respects. They should be alike in others as well. Both phonological and semantic characteristics can serve as a basis for analogy. For example on the basis of its phonological similarity with such verbs as a sting / stung and swing /swung in the same dialects bring has developed a forms such as good by analogy with regular past tense forms like played. As we can see analogy plays a very important role in morphological change.

Reanalysis is particularly common in morphological change. Morphological reanalysis often involves an attempt to attribute a compound or root affix structure to a word that formerly was not broken down into components morphemes. A classic example in English is the word humbugger which originally referred to a type of meet party deriving its name from the city of Hamburg in Germany. This word has been reanalyzed as consisting of two components ham + burger. The later morpheme has since appeared in many new forms including fish burger, chicken burger, egg burger and even as a free morpheme burger. Note that the resulting analysis must not necessarily be correct.

Syntactical change; Syntactic change (word order) like other components of the grammar, syntax is also subjected to change over time. Syntactic changes can involve modifications to phrase structure rule or transformations. For example word order. All languages make a distinction between the subject and direct object. This contrast is typically represented through case marking or word order. Since Old English had an extensive system of case marking, it is not surprising that its word order was same what more than that of modern English. The most common word order is unembeded clauses was Subject+ Verb + Object (SVO). (O’Grady et al, 1997)

S       V        O

Example: Old English: he geseach pone mann

Middle English: He saw the man.

However, when the clause began with an element such as pa “thorn” or ne “not” the verb occurred in second position and precede the subject.

V      S       O

Example: Old English :  pa sende se crying pone disc

Middle English:  then sent the king the dish

Modern English: Then the king sent the dish

Although this word order is still founded in modern English, its use is very limited and subject to special restriction unlike the situation is Old English.

Language Contact according to O’Grady et al,(1997)Language contact which occurs when speakers of one language frequent interact with the speaker of another language or dialect causes a linguistic change as consequence, extensive borrowing can occur particularly where there is significant numbers bilinguals or multilingual. Although borrowing can affect all components of the grammar, the lexicon is typically most affected. English for example had borrowed many French words such as parent, cousin, animal, soup, color, major, cuisine, gateau and blasé. In North America many American words including Canada, Moccasin, totem, tomahawk, Chinook and moose also has been added to English lexicon. Among the effects that borrowing can have in sound system are introduction of new phonemes or allophones and changes in their distribution example some English speakers pronounce the name of classical composer, back with the final the final velar fricative (y) found in Germany pronunciation. As their significant number of borrows from another language, the borrowed foreign segmentation eventually become a new phoneme. In Early middle English period the London dialect had [7] but not [V] in word initial position. The [V] was letter introduce as a result of contact with other dialect of English and with French, in which it did occur word initially as found in modern English pairs such as file and vile.

Sound Change by Inglish P (2005) Sound Change is an alteration in the phonetics of a sound as a result of phonological process is introduced into a language where it did not formally occur it result into sound change. The acceptance of sound change in community begin from word to word or word -class to word- class and from one speaker to the next until all possible words and speakers are affected. A particular pronunciation and allomorphs that has no effect on the phonemic system of a language for example [r] has gone many changes. Phonemic changes affect only pronunciation of words. All the word with [r] still has the same phonological distribution. It is not the case that one dialect has developed a phonemic contrast between different r’s. The dialect has the same phonemes but with different phonemic realizations. Phonetic changes do not affect the phonemic system at all but rather add or delete an allophone of a phoneme, or substitute me allophone for another.

Semantic change, although the changes in word meaning in all languages words rarely jump from one meaning to unrelated one. Typically the change is step by step and involves one of the following phenomena;

Semantic broadening which refers to the process in which the meaning of a word becomes more general or more inclusive than its historically earlier meaning.

Examples of broadening:

     Word      Old meaning New meaning
       Bird           Small fowl Any feathered vertebrate with a beak
      Barn    Place to store barley Any agricultural building
     Aunt    Father’s sisters Father or mother’s sister

Semantic narrowing refers to the process in which the meaning of a word becomes less general or less inclusive than its historically earlier meaning.

Example:

               Word           Old meaning          New meaning
Hound Any dog A hunting bread
Meat Any type of food Flesh of an animal
Fowl Any bird A domesticated bird
Disease Any unfavorable state An illness

Amelioration- the meaning of a word becomes more positive or favorable.

Example;

      Word    Old meaning      New meaning
      Pretty     Tricky, shy, cunning      attractive
      Knight      Body  A man of honorable literary rank

Pejoration – the meaning of a word becomes negative or unfavorable

Example;

        Word    Old meaning      New meaning
       Silly     Happy / prosperous Foolish
       Wench     Girl Wanton woman / prostitute

Addition of lexical items; Addition is frequently the result of technological innovations or contact with other culture. Such developments result in lexical gaps which can be filled by adding new words to the lexicon. New words are added either through the word formation processes available to the language or through borrowing. Word formation the most important word formation processes are compounding and derivation although other types including conversion, blending, back formation, clipping and acronyms can play a significant role.

Compounding and derivations have always been available to English speakers for the creation of new words. In fact much of the compounding and derivations in Old English seem very familiar just as speakers of modern English can use compounding and derivations to create new words (for example the N+N compound- airport.) So could old English speakers create new words such as poetic N+N compound hwalmeg, literary whale + path to mean “sea”.

Borrowing, language contact over time can result in important source of new words, borrowing. Depending in the cultural relationship holding between languages, three types of influence of one language on the other are traditionally identified; substratum, ad stratum and super stratum. Substratum is the influence of the less political and culturally dominant language to the more dominant language for example the period of colonialism when English language borrowed words safari, panga from Swahili language. Ad stratum is the mutual influence of the two equally dominant languages on each other. While super stratum influence a political or culturally dominant language to own another language which is less political or culturally dominant in the area. For example the influence of the Norman French on English language during the Middle English period, also Kiswahili borrowed from English. Examples of English words borrowed from French are blasé, soiree and garage. (O’Grady et al, 1997)

According to Stewart (2001) Language change is caused by Geographical division. As groups of people spread out through Europe, they lost communication with others so that the language of each group went its own way, underwent its own changes thus come to differ from others. Also according to August for example the Proto-Indo-European is believed to a mother language of some European languages such as Germanic language, Slavic, Baltic, Iranian, Indic, Greek , Celtic and Italic language.

Borrowing is taking a word or phrase from one language into another from one variety of language into another. The item is taken such as arpeggio from Italian into English and schlock from Viddish into American English.  Borrowing is a major aspect of language change but the term itself is a misnomer; it presumes repayment, where as there is no quid pro quo between languages. The item borrowed is not returned because it never left the source language and in any case changes in the transfer. English has borrowed more from French, Latin and Greek , significantly from Italian, Spanish, German, Danish and Dutch. Transfer may have an influence on such basic aspects of language as its pronunciation, spelling, syntax and semantics affected. The local system is usually overwhelms the acquisition, thus when numbers of items with aspired voiced stops come into English spelled with /h/ the consonant system remained unchanged bhang being pronounced like bang, dhow like dow, and ghat like gat. In borrowing nouns make up the highest proportion of transfers followed by adjectives. Verbs are few with even fewer adverbs and grammatical words like pronouns. For example English has borrowed the following words from BANTU languages including: Congo, Swahili, Tswana, Xhosa, Zulu (boma, bwana, chimpanzee, Impala, Impala, Indaba, mamba, Marimba, Tsetse and Zambia)

Linguistic heterogeneity, this was proposed by sociolinguist where by sociolinguist like Jennifer Coates (1993),  explain that linguistic change can be said to have taken place when a new a linguistic form used by sub-group within a speech community is adopted by other members of that community and accepted throughout the speech community as norm.

Economy changes in language may be caused by economy where by speakers tends to make their utterances as efficient and effective as possible to reach communicative goals. Purposeful speaking therefore involves a trade- off of costs and benefit. Labov, W (1994) .The principle of least effort; Speakers especially use economy in their articulation which tends to reduce in phonetic reduction of speech forms. See vowel reduction, cluster reduction, lenition and elision. After some time changes may become widely accepted (it becomes a regular sound change) and may end up treated as standard language.

Example:  going to [ goʊ mtʊ ] → gonna  [ gɅnə ]

Vowel reduction [ ʊ ] →[  ə ]

Elision [ nt ] →[n ] . [  oʊɪ ] →[ Ʌ ]

Sequential change; the most type of sequential change is assimilation which has effect of increasing the efficiency of articulation through a simplification articulator movements. We will focus on four main types of the catalogue. One is partial assimilation involving place or manner of articulation is a common change which over time can result in total assimilation. In Spanish and Latin point of articulation of assimilated to the following consonant.

Table: Assimilation (place of articulation in Spanish and Latin)

Old Spanish Semda Modern Spanish Senda
Early latin Inpossibilis Later latin Impossibilis

Also the first words of old English examples show assimilation and the second shows the assimilation of nasality.

Early old English Later old English Modern English
Slǣpde Slǣpte    Slept
Stefn Stemn    Stem

Another type of assimilation is palatalization effect that front vowel and palatal glide [ j ] typically have on velar, alveolar and dental making their place of articulation more palatal. If you compare pronunciation of keep as opposed to cot, you will notice that the pronunciation of [k ] in the former is much more palatal than in the latter due to influence of [ I ]. Palatazation is often the first step in affrication example a change in which palatalized stops become affricates either [ts] or [ts] if the origin stop was voiceless or [d2] or[ d3] if the original stop was voiced.

Example palatalization / affrication included by front vowel and [j]

t                             ts               d                      d2

k                          ts                 g                      d3

Example from roman language

Latin centum  [k]                                old French  cent[ts]  ‘one hundred’

Latin centum  [k] Italian                   ciento[ts] ‘one hundred’

Latin medius [d] Italian                      mezzo [d2] ‘half’

Nasalization refers to nasalizing effect that a nasal consonant can have on adjacent vowel. These changes occur in both French and Portuguese, with the subsequent loss of the nasal consonant. That is pronunciation of vowel in our example underwent additional change in height and tenses in French.

Example of nasalization in Portuguese and French

Latin Portuguese French
bon- Bo [bo] Bon [ bᴐ] good
un- Um [ū] Un [œ] one

Also umlaut they affect the vowel or sometimes a glide in one syllable can have on the vowel of another syllable, usually a preceding one. Umlaut played an important role in old English, as it still does in modern Germany and it source of irregular plurals such as goose /geese and mouse / mice in modern English. Leaving the umlauted vowel as the marker of plural form, subsequent changes included the derounding of the umlauted vowel [y] and [ Ө ] yielding   [ i ] and [e] respectively by middle English and great vowel shift as described below.

Umlaut in English

Pre OE 1                     pre OE 2                      Early OE                     Subsequent change

[gōs]                            [gōs]                            [gō]                           [gu:s]          “goose”

[gōsi]                        [ɡ   si]                          [ɡ  s]                        [gi:s]            “geese”

[mūs]                        [mūs]                           [mūs]                       [maʊs]          “mose”

[mūsi]                       [mȳsi]                          [mȳs]                       [maɪs]            “mice”

Therefore, linguistic change is important in any language and may be manifested in different levels like morphologically, sound (phonologically), syntactically as well as the semantics. There is no any language which ca not undergoes changes where to the larger extent they are mainly caused by heavy borrowing from other languages.

Done by.

NO. LINGUIST.
1. MMELO, Philipo.
2. NYAIRO, Fanuel, J.
3. MABADA, Jane
4. MAGOGO, Daniel. T.
5. MIZENGO, Scholastica
6. MPELGWA, Aron
7. MLIGO, Aulerian
8. PHILBERT, Liberatus
9. NG’ANDU, Enica
10. ATUPELYE, Richard
11. GREYSON, Naomi
12. OMARI, Rajabu
13. MSEMWA, Yolanda

The university of Dodoma.

Syntax is phrase structure rules governed. Discuss.

Did the student like syntax?

Steps

→The student like syntax.

  1. NP + Pred P
  2. Det + N + Pred P
  3. Det + N + Pred P
  4. Det + N + Aux + VP
  5. Det + N + Aux + V + NP
  6. Det + N + Aux + V + N

The above six stages are called initial phase of derivation

  1. Lexical insertion.

Det + students + aux + like + syntax.

  1. Specify determiner.

The + students + Aux + like + syntax

  1. Specifying Auxiliary.

The + Student + past + like + syntax

  1. Auxiliary move towards the beginning of the sentence.

Past + the + student + like + syntax.

  1. ‘Do’ is going to specify the auxiliary and then carries the question.

Past + do + the + student + like + syntax.

  1. Affix shift.

Do + past + the + student + like + syntax.

  1. Surface structure shows an affix transformation has completed.

Did the student like syntax.

  1. Surface structure to show that phonology has taken place to make interrogative sentence.

Did the student like syntax?

Generally, every language is governed by rules of grammar, punctuation, usage, syntax, context, and audience.

 

DONE BY;

NO. LINGUIST.
1. MMELO, Philipo.
2. NYAIRO, Fanuel, J.
3. MABADA, Jane
4. MAGOGO, Daniel. T.
5. MIZENGO, Scholastica
6. MPELGWA, Aron
7. MLIGO, Aulerian
8. PHILBERT, Liberatus
9. NG’ANDU, Enica
10. ATUPELYE, Richard
11. GREYSON, Naomi
12. OMARI, Rajabu
13. MSEMWA, Yolanda

The University of Dodoma.

Fences. Plot Summary

Plot Summary

Fences is divided into two acts. Act One is comprised of four scenes and Act Two has five. The play begins on a Friday, Troy and Bono’s payday. Troy and Bono go to Troy’s house for their weekly ritual of drinking and talking. Troy has asked Mr. Rand, their boss, why the black employees aren’t allowed to drive the garbage trucks, only to lift the garbage. Bono thinks Troy is cheating on his wife, Rose. Troy and Rose’s son, Cory, has been recruited by a college football team. Troy was in the Negro Leagues but never got a chance to play in the Major Leagues because he got too old to play just as the Major Leagues began accepting black players. Troy goes into a long epic story about his struggle in July of 1943 with death. Lyons shows up at the house because he knows it is Troy’s payday. Rose reminds Troy about the fence she’s asked him to finish building.

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Cory and Troy work on the fence. Cory breaks the news to Troy that he has given away his job at the local grocery store, the A&P, during the football season. Cory begs Troy to let him play because a coach from North Carolina is coming all the way to Pittsburgh to see Cory play. Troy refuses and demands Cory to get his job back.

Act One, scene four takes place on Friday and mirrors scene one. Troy has won his case and has been assigned as the first colored garbage truck driver in the city. Bono and Troy remember their fathers and their childhood experiences of leaving home in the south and moving north. Cory comes home enraged after finding out that Troy told the football coach that Cory may not play on the team. Troy warns Cory that his insubordinance is “strike one,” against him.

Troy bails his brother Gabriel out of jail. Bono and Troy work on the fence. Bono explains to Troy and Cory that Rose wants the fence because she loves her family and wants to keep close to her love. Troy admits to Bono that he is having an affair with Alberta. Bono bets Troy that if he finishes building the fence for Rose, Bono will buy his wife, Lucille the refrigerator he has promised her for a long time. Troy tells Rose about a hearing in three weeks to determine whether or not Gabriel should be recommitted to an asylum. Troy tells Rose about his affair. Rose accuses Troy of taking and not giving. Troy grabs Rose’s arm. Cory grabs Troy from behind. They fight and Troy wins. Troy calls “strike two” on Cory.

Six months later, Troy says he is going over to the hospital to see Alberta who went into labor early. Rose tells Troy that Gabriel has been taken away to the asylum because Troy couldn’t read the papers and signed him away. Alberta had a baby girl but died during childbirth. Troy challenges Death to come and get him after he builds a fence. Troy brings home his baby, Raynell. Rose takes in Raynell as her own child, but refuses to be dutiful as Troy’s wife.

On Troy’s payday, Bono shows up unexpectedly. Troy and Bono acknowledge how each man made good on his bet about the fence and the refrigerator. Troy insists that Cory leave the house and provide for himself. Cory brings up Troy’s recent failings with Rose. Cory points out that the house and property, from which Troy is throwing Cory out, should actually be owned by Gabriel whose government checks paid for most of the mortgage payments. Troy physically attacks Cory. Troy kicks Cory out of the house for good. Cory leaves. Troy swings the baseball bat in the air, taunting Death.

Eight years later, Raynell plays in her newly planted garden. Troy has died from a heart attack. Cory returns home from the Marines to attend Troy’s funeral. Lyons and Bono join Rose too. Cory refuses to attend. Rose teaches Cory that not attending Troy’s funeral does not make Cory a man. Raynell and Cory sing one of Troy’s father’s blues songs. Gabriel turns up, released or escaped from the mental hospital. Gabe blows his trumpet but no sound comes out. He tries again but the trumpet will not play. Disappointed and hurt, Gabriel dances. He makes a cry and the Heavens open wide. He says, “That’s the way that goes,” and the play ends.

Character Analysis

Troy Maxson

The protagonist of Fences, Troy is a responsible man whose thwarted dreams make him prone to believing in self-created illusions. Troy begins the play by entertaining Bono and Rose with an epic story about his struggle with a personified Death, or Devil, character. Another example of Troy’s ability to live in a fictitious world is his denial to his best friend, Bono about the reality of his extramarital affair with Alberta. Fences is largely Troy’s story. What all of the play characters have in common is a complicated relationship with Troy. Troy’s character creates the large and small conflicts with everyone else in Fences. Troy instigates conflict as a result of his ability to believe in self-created illusions and his inability to accept other’s choices in life when they differ from Troy’s own philosophy. Rose often contradicts his stories about himself and versions of what happened in the past. Troy also aggressively disagrees with Lyons’ decision to be a musician and Cory’s decision to play football in college, as well as Rose’s habit of playing the numbers.

Troy’s last name, Maxson, is an amalgamation of Mason and Dixon, after the Mason-Dixon line, the name for the imaginary line that separated the slave states from the free states. Troy’s name symbolically demonstrates Troy’s character as one who lives on a line between two opposing ideas. Troy’s history is equal parts southern and northern, half-full of hope and half-filled with disappointment. He was once at the top of an exciting career opportunity as a ball-player that nose-dived into a life in a dead-end job.

The son of an unsuccessful sharecropper, Troy provides a bridge to the Maxson family history in the south and to the effects slavery had and continues to have on generations of black lives. The south and the north define Troy’s history and this duality drives a dividing line between him and his sons, Lyons and Cory who grew up believing that they could achieve their dreams without unjust restraint. Through song and story-telling, Troy’s character serves as the family grit, a traditional role in African cultures as a paternal oral historian whose stories provide an understanding of the context of their loved ones’ lives.

Another duality is Troy’s hypocrisy. Troy demands that his loved ones live practical, responsible lives while he has the freedom to have an affair, rebel against racist practices of his employers by protesting the limitation of black workers as lifters not drivers on the trash trucks. Troy refuses to see life in any way presented to him but the way he perceives events in his own head.

Troy Maxson is a classically drawn tragic-hero. He begins the play loved, admired and getting away with his secret affair. But eventually, Troy’s death leaves many negative attributes as an inheritance for his family to sort out and accept.

Rose Maxson

Rose’s name, like August Wilson’s mother’s name, Daisy, is the name of a flower. Flowers, seeds and planting comprise a motif that Wilson uses in Fences to represent nurturing, loving, kindness, and care because of the parallel qualities these attributes share with all living things that need nurturing to grow or change, like love and patience and forgiveness. Rose Maxson exemplifies these traits of compassion in all of her relationships, especially as a parent. Unlike Troy, Rose is a fair judge of character. She puts her faith in her husband and son and hopes for a better future while not begrudging the stagnant present situation.

Gabriel Maxson

Similar to characters like the Fool in King Lear or other Shakespearean plays, Gabriel is the wise fool, a character who often sounds silly or nonsensical, but who often knows more about the characters around him than they know about themselves. When he talks to his brother Troy in riddles about hellhounds and St. Peter in Act One, Scene Two, Gabe seems to observe Troy’s fates with clarity. He tries, in his playful language, to warn Troy of his tragic fate

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Themes, Motifs, and Symbols

Themes

Coming of Age Within the Cycle of Damaged Black Manhood

Both Troy and Bono relate stories of their childhood in the south and tales of their relationships with difficult fathers to Lyons in Act One, scene four. Their often-painful memories provide a context for understanding the similarities and differences of the generations separating Troy and Bono from Lyons and Cory. Troy’s father, like many blacks after the abolishment of slavery was a failed sharecropper. Troy claims that his father was so evil that no woman stayed with him for very long, so Troy grew up mostly motherless. When Troy was fourteen, his father noticed that the mule Troy was supposedly taking care of had wandered off. Troy’s father found Troy with a girl Troy had a crush on and severely beat Troy with leather reins. Troy thought his father was just angry at Troy for his disobedience, but proving Troy’s father was even more despicable, his father then raped the girl. Troy was afraid of his father until that moment.

=At that moment, however, Troy believes he became a man. He could no longer live under the roof with a man that would commit these unacceptable acts, so he left home to be on his own, though he was homeless and broke, with no ties or family elsewhere. Manhood, to Troy, meant separating from his father because of conflict and abuse. The one attribute Troy respected and proudly inherited was a sense of responsibility. Troy’s father provided for eleven children, and Troy too became the sole breadwinner for his family.

Bono however, remembers a different type of father. Bono’s father was equally depressed about life as Troy’s father, but unlike Troy’s father, Bono’s dad never provided a fathering or providing role to Bono and his family. Bono describes his father as having, “The Walking Blues,” a condition that prevented his father from staying in one place for long and moving frequently from one woman to the next. Bono could barely recognize his father and knew little about him. Bono says his father, like many other African Americans of his father’s generation, were “searching out The New Land.” As blacks were freed from slavery and wanted to escape the often slavery-like conditions of sharecropping, many walked north in what history calls The Great Migration, to pursue a better life in the north, particularly in urban centers. Because of Bono’s father’s unreliable personality, Bono chose not to father children, to insure he would not abandon a child like his father. But, contrary to Bono’s fears, his father’s personality was not a family trait, but a choice he made to cope with his particular circumstances. Bono has been loyal to his wife, Lucille for almost eighteen years.

Lyons and Cory had very different upbringings, though their development into men does not fall too far from the tree of their father’s experience. Lyons spent his entire childhood growing up with only one parent, his mother, while Troy was in jail. Lyons feels he has the right to make his own life decisions and pursue his own dreams in music because he had more familial support and fewer hardships than Troy. Troy was not around to mold him into a responsible person, so Lyons tends to need to borrow money, though he does pay Troy back respectfully. Cory ends up leaving home in a similar conflict with Troy that Troy had with Cory’s paternal grandfather. To Troy and Cory, becoming a man comes to mean leaving the man that raised you because of a violent conflict. This painful process of coming of age is confusing. For both Troy and Cory, the creation of their own identity when their role model is a creature of duality—part responsible and loyal, the other side, hurtful, selfish and abusive, proves a difficult model with which to mold their own identity as grown men with a more promising future than the father who threatens their livelihood.

Interpreting and Inheriting History

Much of the conflict in Wilson’s plays, including Fences, arises because the characters are at odds with the way they see the past and what they want to do with the future. For example, Troy Maxson and his son, Cory see Cory’s future differently because of the way they interpret history. Troy does not want Cory to experience the hardship and disappointment Troy felt trying to become a professional sports player, so he demands that Cory work after school instead of practicing with the football team. Cory, however, sees that times changed since baseball rejected a player as talented as Troy because of the color of his skin. Cory knows the possibility exists that the professional sports world will include, not exclude him. In Act One, Scene Three, Cory provides examples of successful African American athletes to Troy. Cory says, “The Braves got Hank Aaron and Wes Covington. Hank Aaron hit two home runs today. That makes forty-three.” Troy responds, “Hank Aaron ain’t nobody.” Cory’s sport, football, integrated its players years before baseball. For Troy to accept this change in the world would cause Troy to accept the death of his own dreams. Troy refuses to see Cory’s potential because it would mean accepting his own misfortune. Troy and Cory see history in a way that benefits their worldview. Unfortunately this conflict pushes father and son away from each other. Troy, who learned a responsible work ethic from his otherwise abusive father, means well when he insists that Cory return to work at the A&P because he sees the job as fair, honest work that isn’t at the mercy of powerful whites’ sometimes arbitrary decisions, as in Major League baseball. But by attempting to insure Cory of a harmless future, Troy stifles his son’s potential and prevents Cory from having a promising future.

Troy’s perception of what is right and what is wrong for Cory, based on Troy’s refusal to perceive a historical change in the acceptance of blacks, tragically causes Cory to experience a disappointing fate similar to Troy’s. Troy passes his personal history on to his family in other ways throughout the play with sayings that represent his philosophies of life like, “You gotta take the crookeds with the straights.” His children also inherit Troy’s past by learning songs he sings like, “Hear It Ring! Hear It Ring!” a song Troy’s own father taught him. Cory tells Rose in Act Two, scene five, “Papa was like a shadow that followed you everywhere.” Troy’s songs and sayings link his family to the difficult life in the south that his generation was free to run away from, though penniless and without roots in the north. Troy’s purposefully and inadvertently passes on his life experience to his children and family, for better and for worse.

 

 

The Choice Between Pragmatism and Illusions as Survival Mechanisms

 

Troy and Rose choose divergent coping methods to survive their stagnant lives. Their choices directly correspond to the opposite perspectives from which they perceive their mutual world. In Act Two, scene one, Troy and Rose say that they both feel as if they have been stuck in the same place since their relationship began eighteen years ago. However, Rose and Troy handle their frustration and disappointment with their intertwined lives differently. This difference in their viewpoints is evident early on in the play. In Act One, scene one, Troy proves through his story about his battle with Death that he is a dreamer and a believer in self-created illusions. To Troy, his struggle with Death was an actual wrestling match with a physical being. Rose, on the other hand, swiftly attempts to bring Troy back to reality, explaining that Troy’s story is based on an episode of pneumonia he had in July, 1941. Troy ignores Rose’s pragmatic, realistic perception of his fight with death. Troy brags about his wrestling match with Death. Rose unsuccessfully refutes his story by mentioning that every time he tells the story he changes the details. Troy is unmoved by Rose’s evidence against his illusion. Rose, as pacifier of the Maxson family, relents, making a final comment, “Troy, don’t nobody wanna be hearing all that stuff.” Later, when Troy weaves a story about encountering the devil, Rose buttons his long account with two simple words, “Troy lying.”

The one impractical activity Rose takes part in is playing numbers. She has dreams and hopes for the future, like Lyons who also plays the numbers and wants to be successful in a difficult profession, jazz music. In Act One, scene two, “Troy says to Rose, “You ain’t doing nothing but throwing your money away.” And when Cory proposes that they buy a television in Act one, scene three, Troy makes an excuse that they need to spend the money on a new roof. When it comes to other characters’ impractical decisions, Troy suddenly becomes a realist, selfishly reserving the right to dream for him only. This response comes across hypocritically from a man who later, in the same scene, will refuse to admit Hank Aaron gets enough playing time or when Cory proves a point about Sandy Koufax, Troy’s futile response is, “I ain’t thinking of no Sandy Koufax,” as if not thinking about him will make Koufax nonexistent.

Later, in Act Two, scene one, Troy admits his affair with Alberta to Rose, excusing his behavior by expressing to Rose that spending time with Alberta allowed him to provide an illusion of accomplishment and escape from responsibility. Troy says, “Then when I saw that gal…I got to thinking that if I tried…I just might be able to steal second.” Troy perceives his relationship with Alberta as a laudable move in a baseball game, as a personal accomplishment. Rose sees Troy’s lies and deception about the affair as simple and straightforward self-absorbed betrayal. She says, “We’re not talking about baseball! We’re talking about you going off to lay in bed with another woman…[w]e ain’t talking about no baseball.” In the final scene, Rose copes with the death of Troy with her typically pragmatic view. “…I do know he meant to do more good than harm.” Troy dies, swinging a baseball bat, still attached to unfulfilled dreams of his past while Rose serves as peacemaker and practitioner of love with her family while they grapple with Troy’s confrontational legacy.

Motifs

Death and Baseball

In Act one, scene one, Troy Maxson declares, “Death ain’t nothing but a fastball on the outside corner.” With this line, the former Negro League slugger merges his past experience as a ballplayer with his philosophy. Troy, Bono, and Rose argue about the quality of the Major League black ballplayer compared to Troy when he was in his prime. A fastball on the outside corner was homerun material for Troy. Though Troy feels beleaguered from work and deeply troubled by coming along too early to play in the Major Leagues because they were still segregated when he was in top form, Troy believes he is unconquerable and almost immortal when it come to issues of life and death. Troy knows he overcame pneumonia ten years ago, survived an abusive father and treacherous conditions in his adaptation to surviving in an urban environment when he walked north to live in Pittsburgh, and jail. Baseball is what Troy is most proud of and knows he conquered on his own. In this first scene of the play, Troy is afraid of nothing, values his life, and feels in control. Troy’s attitude toward death is proud and nonchalant. Troy says, “Ain’t nothing wrong with talking about death. That’s part of life. Everybody gonna die. You gonna die, I’m gonna die. Bono’s gonna die. Hell, we all gonna die.” He has not recently experienced a personal loss so great that it humbles and weakens his spirit. In the same scene, Troy compares Death to an army that marched towards him in July, 1941, when he had pneumonia. He describes Death as an army, an icy touch on the shoulder, a grinning face. Troy claims he spoke to Death. Troy thinks he constantly has to be on guard against Death’s army. He claims he saw Death standing with a sickle in his hand, spoke to Death and wrestled Death for three days and three nights. After the wrestling match, Troy saw Death put on a white robe with a hood on it and leave to look for his sickle.

Troy admits, “Death ain’t nothing to play with. And I know he’s gonna get me,” but he refuses to succumb to Death easily. Troy follows the Bible quotation, “Be ever vigilant,” in his attitude towards Death. In his perception of Death, Troy mutates the form of Death many times, from fastball, to a sickle-carrying, devil-like figure and finally composting the devil into a Ku Klux Klan member in his white hood ceremony regalia. His image of Death being composed of a marching army or leading an army transforms into this KKK leader image that has camp followers.

As the play progresses, Troy repeatedly merges his baseball metaphors with his Death rhetoric. In the last lines of numerous scenes Troy speaks to Death out- loud, taunting Death to try to come after him and/or warns Cory that his behavior is causing him to strike out. Cory makes three mistakes in Troy’s eyes and when he strikes out, Troy kicks him out of the house. Troy’s death and baseball metaphors are inextricably linked. Admitting that he was too old to play baseball when the Major Leagues integrated would kill Troy’s belief that he was directly cheated out of a special life that he deserved and earned. To Troy, it is enough of an injury that the Major Leagues were segregated during his prime. He sees baseball as the best time of his life, but also the death of his dreams and hopes. When Cory was born, Troy promised he would not allow his son to experience the same disappointment he was subjected to in baseball. So, Troy equates Cory’s pursuit of a dream as strong as his father’s as mistakes worthy of warning and punishment or “strikes” that Troy believes will prevent Cory from reaching the same fate as Troy did.

Seeds and Growth

Characters in Fences literally and figuratively employ the motif of seeds, flowers, plants, and related actions like growing, taking root, planting, and gestation—in both their language and actions. Like August Wilson’s mother whose name is Daisy, Rose has the name of a flower. Rose is a typical African American 1950’s housewife and, as the caretaker of the family and home, she represents loving care and nurturing, attributes also frequently used to grow plants. Like the characteristics of the flower after which she is named, Rose is a beautiful soul who protects her family and protects herself when Troy hurts her. In Act Two, scene, five, Rose demonstrates to Raynell that seeds take time to grow. Rose says, “You just have to give it a chance. It’ll grow.” She exemplifies patience and generosity in her relationships with everyone in the play. For instance when she sides with Cory on his decision to play football, her compassion and concern for Gabriel when he is arrested and her acceptance of Raynell as her own child when Alberta dies. When Troy complains in Act Two, scene one that he needs to escape to Alberta’s bed because he feels as if he has been in the same place for sixteen years, Rose replies, “I been standing with you! I been right here with you, Troy.” Rose is sedentary, like the flower, growing upward in the same spot. She relates her decision to live life invested in her husband’s life even though she knows he will never be as successful as they once hoped. In Act Two, scene one Rose’s description of her life is a metaphor of planting. She says, “I took all my feelings, my wants and needs, my dreams…and I buried them inside you. I planted a seed and watched and prayed over it. I planted myself inside you and waited to bloom. And it didn’t take me no eighteen years to find out the soil was hard and rocky and it wasn’t never gonna bloom. But I held on to you, Troy.” Rose lessens the rocky and hard nature of Troy with her love and compassion, providing shelter to her children from their father’s destructive behavior and legacy. She has raised Cory lovingly and teaches Raynell about loving, a hopeful future and forgiveness.

Blues

August Wilson says he uses the language and attitude of blues songs to inspire his plays and play characters. The blues is a melancholy song created by black people in the United States that tends to repeat a twelve bar phrase of music and a 3-line stanza that repeats the first line in the second line. A blues song usually contains several blue, or minor, notes in the melody and harmony.

Fences is structured somewhat like a blues song. The play all takes place in one place like a key of music and the characters each have their own rhythm and melody that Wilson riffs off of around the common locale. Characters repeat phrases, or pass phrases around, like a blues band with a line of melody. Similar to the role of repeated lyrics and melody of a blues song, Wilson’s characters display changes in their life and a changed attitude toward life by repeating scenarios in which they act. For instance, Friday, Troy’s payday, is the setting of three scenes. By mirroring the situation in which events in the play take place, we can observe the change that occurs from one instance to the next. For instance in Act One, Scene one, Troy and Bono come home after payday as best friends worried about Troy’s future. In Act One, Scene Four, Troy and Bono celebrate after payday because Troy won his discrimination case, but Bono is more concerned that Troy will ruin his life with his extramarital affair. Troy comes home after payday in Act Two, Scene Four, estranged from Bono and his family. He drinks and sings to comfort himself. By now, the good days of the play’s first scene seem far-gone. This is a way playwrights manipulate the sense of time in a play, but for Wilson in particular, the repeated events and language of the play are in keeping what he calls a “blues aesthetic.”

Wilson’s plays are extensions of the history of blues in African American culture, and thus, in American culture in general. Troy sings two blues songs, one, in Act Two, scene three, “Please Mr. Engineer let a man ride the line,” and in Act Two, scene four, “Hear it Ring! Hear it Ring!” Rose also sings a song in Act One, scene two, “Jesus be a fence all around me every day.” Wilson invented these lyrics but based them on themes and symbols in African American traditional, spiritual, gospel, and blues songs. Rose’s song is a religious song so hers might have more roots in the gospel tradition. Troy’s songs are truly from the blues tradition. His song, “Hear it Ring Hear it Ring!” was passed on to him by his father and in the last scene of the play, we witness Cory and Raynell singing the song together after Troy’s death. The blues in Fences connects generations together and keeps alive a family’s roots and history beyond the grave.

Symbols

Trains

Troy brings his illegitimate baby, Raynell home for the first time at the beginning of the Act Two, Scene Three of Fences. Troy sits with his motherless baby on a porch where he once reigned, but now is an unwanted presence. Then, Troy sings the song, “Please Mr. Engineer, let a man ride the line,” which echoes the pleas of a man begging a train engineer to let him ride, in hiding, for free. Especially during the Harlem Renaissance (the flourishing of African American artists, writers, poets, etc. in the first half of the Twentieth Century) and during slavery times, respectively, trains were common literary devices in African American literature and music. A character that rides a train or talks of trains, or even goes to a train station came to represent change. Trains represent the coming or arrival of a major change in a character’s life. In Fences, Troy identifies with the blues song about riding the train. By singing this particular song, Troy’s acknowledges that his actions caused the upheaval in the lives of his loved ones. Troy sings, “Please Mr. Engineer let a man ride the line,” but in other words he is crying out to his wife, Rose to let him back into her home. Like the voice in the song, Troy is homeless and has nothing to offer the one he needs something from in order to keep going. Especially with a baby in hand, Troy has no future without his wife. In order to come back into her life, Troy knows he is asking Rose to give him a free ride of forgiveness. If she does take him back, Troy knows life with her will never return to the life they once had together because he lost her trust and respect when he committed adultery. The train song also connotes the time Troy and many other men of his generation spent wandering North during the Great Migration. He sings, “I ain’t got no ticket, please let me ride the blinds,” which represents the poverty the released slaves and the failed sharecroppers experienced in Troy’s father’s generation. Troy sings the song to his newborn daughter, passing on a song that tells an important story of her past and links that past to the present. Troy’s song exemplifies the tradition in African American history to make something from nothing-like the song. Troy hopes his love for his daughter and her innocence will change Rose’s heart and allow Troy another chance at fatherhood and marriage.

Fences

August Wilson did not name his play, Fences, simply because the dramatic action depends strongly on the building of a fence in the Maxson’s backyard. Rather, the characters lives change around the fence-building project which serves as both a literal and a figurative device, representing the relationships that bond and break in the arena of the backyard. The fact that Rose wants the fence built adds meaning to her character because she sees the fence as something positive and necessary. Bono observes that Rose wants the fence built to hold in her loved ones. To Rose, a fence is a symbol of her love and her desire for a fence indicates that Rose represents love and nurturing. Troy and Cory on the other hand think the fence is a drag and reluctantly work on finishing Rose’s project. Bono also observes that to some people, fences keep people out and push people away. Bono indicates that Troy pushes Rose away from him by cheating on her. Troy’s lack of commitment to finishing the fence parallels his lack of commitment in his marriage. The fence appears finished only in the final scene of the play, when Troy dies and the family reunites. The wholeness of the fence comes to mean the strength of the Maxson family and ironically the strength of the man who tore them apart, who also brings them together one more time, in death.

The Devil

Troy casts the Devil as the main character of his exaggerated stories that entertain, bewilder and frustrate his family and friends. Eventually, Troy’s association of the Devil as a harbinger of death comes to represent his struggle to survive the trials of his life. Many scenes in the play end with Troy speaking a soliloquy to Death and the Devil. In Act One, Scene One, Troy spins a long yarn, or tale about his fight for several days with the Devil. The story of the Devil endears Troy to audiences early on by revealing his capability to imagine and believe in the absurd. In another story, Troy turns a white salesman into a Devil. Troy calls a man the Devil who tried to sell Troy furniture in exchange for monthly payments by mail. Again, providing the pragmatic version of the story, Rose explains why Troy invents stories about the Devil. “Anything you don’t understand, you call the Devil.” Troy observes door-to-door salesmen and the process of layaway for the first time and in his ignorance, turns a modern occurrence into a mythical story.

Troy also describes the Devil’s appearance as a man in a white hood. Wilson conjures the image of KKK members in KKK regalia with this description. Troy imagines the Devil, not just as an airy spirit from hell but also as a living human being. To Troy, the Devil sometimes symbolizes the aggression and cowardice of bigotry. Troy’s stories about the Devil show that Troy sees himself as a man winning a fight against injustice and hatred. Troy’s courage in overcoming racism is also suggested by Troy’s complaint against the Sanitation Department that eventually hires Troy as the first black man to drive a trash truck. However, as the play progresses and Troy loses the love of his family and inadvertently betrays his brother, Gabriel, the less we believe in Troy’s ability to win in his struggle to overcome the bad luck of his fate and the demons he carries within that become even greater forces than the racism that curtailed his dreams.

 

 

What is African indigenous education? philosophical bases of African indigenous education.strengths and limitations of this education, AND relevant is it to the modern education today.

          African indigenous education was a lifelong process of learning where by a person progressed through predetermined stages of life of graduation from cradle to grave. Cameroon & Dodd (1970). This implies that African indigenous education was continuous throughout lifetime from childhood to old-age

             Mushi (2009) defines African indigenous education as a process of passing among the tribal members and from one generation to another the inherited knowledge, skills, cultural traditions norms and values of the tribe.

          In www.eric.ed.gov/../recordDetail. African indigenous education is defined as the native, locally developed form of bringing up the youngsters by the older and more experienced members of the society. Being native is by no means to deny the fact that indigenous learning goals, content, structures and methods have not been enriched, or for that matter, polluted or both by outside influences. 

      African indigenous education can generally be defined as the form of learning in Africa traditional societies in which knowledge, skills, and attitudes of the tribe, were passed from elders to children, by means of oral instructions and practical activities.

          The main characteristics of African indigenous education included the following.

           Traditional African indigenous education was community oriented, geared to solving the problems of the community. The instructional activities were therefore, directed towards the social life of the community, so as to prepare the learners to fit into their community.

            Kenyatta (1961 in Mushi 2009) holds it that;

It was taught in relation to a ‘concrete’ situation. The boys and girls learnt about birds that were harmful, how they could be controlled, and what birds could be eaten. In the same way they learnt about trees that were good for firewood, building or for propping crops like banana and yams as well as those which resisted ants.

 

             It was illiterate. The learning experiences were made orally and the knowledge was stored in the heads of elders. The instructors were carefully selected from the family or clan. Their task was to impart knowledge, skills and attitudes to the young, informally at the didactic and practical levels.  Nyerere (1975) says, “at the didactic level the teaching process took the form of the stories, legends, riddles, and songs; while at the practical level individuals enacted what they had learnt didactically, by imitating and watching what their elders performed”.

                It put emphasis on practical learning and the young adult learned by watching, participating and executing what they learnt. The skills like carving, masonry, clay working, cloth making, building canoe making, cooking, and home management were insisted among the children in the community. These were the skills opened to all, as they consisted of the basic skills, knowledge and attitudes that enabled individuals to live and function effectively in their tribe.

The question of learning by doing is very important. The best way to learn sewing is to sew; the best way to learn farming is to farm; the best way to learn cooking is to cook the best way to learn how to teach is to teach and so on. Nyerere (1975 in Mushi 2009) 

             It was not separated from other spheres of community activity. This implies that it was the whole life of the community and it had no special time of a day or life when it took place. Instead it took place in the entire span of life it can therefore be viewed as a life-long process in which an individual acquired skills, knowledge and values from womb to tomb. Mush (2009) comments that in this case education was essentially part of life and not separated from the societal culture.

            It was functional. The knowledge skills and values that were imparted were relevant to the socio-economic activities of an individual. The learners learned the skills that were for immediate and long term activities. Mushi spotlights the Bena society and has the following to say;

In Bena society, the individual who were earmarked for various community roles like guards, leaders or teachers, received training around the chiefs (ntemi) residence. The compulsory subjects comprised fighting, religion, law, history, agriculture and animal husbandry. Upon completion of their training they were appointed as guards, teachers and warriors.(ibid)

 

           It had no paper word-testing and certificates but learners graduated ceremoniously. There were basically no formal exams at the end of a specific level of training, but a learner was considered a graduate when he/she was able to practice what s/he had learnt throughout the period of training. The ceremony was held to mark the completion o training and thus assuming more community responsibilities. This was common  especially during what Mushi referred to as ‘coming of  age’ ceremonies and ‘the rites of passage’

 

African indigenous education did no develop in a vacuum, it had its own philosophical bases on which it was built. Having looked at the main characteristics of African indigenous education lets examine its philosophical bases. The following should be considered as philosophical bases for African indigenous education    

            Preparedness/preparationism. This implies that the role of teaching and learning was to equip boys and girls with the skills appropriate to their gender in preparation for their distinctive roles the society. In most African traditional societies such as Sukuma, Zanaki, Kurya, masai, Nyamwezi most girls were taught how to become good mothers and how to handle their husbands soon after marriage, and boys were prepared to become warriors, manual farmers, good fathers (the heads of the family) and other male dominated occupations.(ibid)

             Functionalism. This was another philosophical base in which the knowledge, skills and attitudes imparted were relevant to the social economic activities of an individual. And so education was for utility value. It was provided for immediate induction into real life in the society. Learners learnt by observing, imitating and initiation ceremonies. Mushi has the following to say on it

   Indigenous African education was functional, the knowledge, skills and values that were imparted were relevant to the socio-economic activities of the individual … this was evident in the fields of agriculture, building, fishing, iron smelting, canoe making dancing or child rearing.(ibid)

 

                Communalism. In African traditional society learners learned/acquired a common spirit to work and life and that the means of production were owned communally. The education was also an integral part of culture and history. For example children upbringing was a whole community’s role. If for instance a child misbehaved in the absence of his/her parents any adult member of the community was responsible to correct him/her on spot. That implies that even children belonged to the society.

               Holisticism/multiple learning.  In this philosophical base a learner was required to acquire multiple skills. They were either not allowed to specialize in specific occupation, or a very little room for specialization did exist. When a learner learnt  about a certain skill, say farming s/he was obliged  to learn all other skills related to farming such as, how to prepare farms, hoeing, food preservation, how to fight with diseases attacking crops and so on. Also he had to learn other skills like, hunting, house building, cookery, and principles required for the wellbeing of an individual, clan and ethnic groups. The learner learnt multiple skills and mastered them all.

               Perennialism. This philosophical base ensured that the traditional communities in Africa use education as a necessary tool for preserving the status quo of the tribe. Based on this fact it did not allow the progressive influence of on the mind of young people and so it was viewed as conservative in nature. Learners were viewed as passive recipients and could not contribute anything to the learning process. Mushi says on this that, “criticism about what they were taught was discouraged and knowledge was not to be questioned. Questions seeking clarification on aspects not clearly understood were encouraged” (2009:39)

 

     African indigenous education displayed the following strengths to its recipients and the society at large.

           Every member of the community was employed. Children learnt the skills that prepared them to immediately utilize their physical environment for self-employment. The skills acquired by watching, and imitating the elders were immediately put into practical use. And thus the children became productive and useful members in the society.

           It was successful in maintaining the socio-economic and cultural structures of the society. The learners were taught among other things, to preserve their own culture and to get rid of external influences. Also the skills like masonry, clay working, carving, cloth making, building canoe making and tinsmithery, were taught in the view of maintaining the socio-economic and cultural heritage of the society.

           The learners/recipients acquired communal attitudes rather than individual. From communalism philosophical base point of view, learners were taught to respect the properties of the whole society, and they used their acquired knowledge for service of the society. The Masai moran for example protected the whole society and the properties therein.

 

Despite its strengths, African indigenous education did not go without limitations. Below are some of the limitations that befell African indigenous education.

         It was confined to a particular clan or society and covered that aspect considered being of immediate relevance to them and it did not go beyond the borders of the society. Worse enough the elders who were teachers hardly entertained any challenge. That is what Mushi expresses in this paragraph; “traditional education had a specific body of knowledge to be learnt which never changed, and which concentrated only on the transmission of cultural heritage, i.e. of traditions, values, and norms among the members of the tribe from childhood to adulthood…”

        The accumulated knowledge and skills could not be preserved in written form. It lacked proper methods of storing knowledge and relied on the memories of the elders. Because it was not documented it was difficult to spread from one place to another. Mush says “it was not easy to describe, compare, and estimate distance, volume, weight, and size of different objects because figures or letters were unknown to traditional African societies” (ibid).

          Intellectual training occupied a very small place in traditional African education. This means that greater emphasis was placed on the ‘concrete’ rather than the ‘abstract’. It ignored other cognitive abilities like reasoning, which although it was imperative, was insufficiently developed. So sometimes, everything happening, be it good or bad was attributed to God’s will.

  It is correct to argue that traditional African societies had their own ways of reasoning, but to some people this kind of reasoning could not enable them to imagine alternatives to decision arrived at, a factor that was partly attributed to the emphasis placed on traditions i.e. beliefs and their threats”(ibid)

 

        Learning was lineal; the young people were taught by elders who had experiences in societal life. The young people were not given chance as they were considered to have no experiences that would help them contribute in the learning process; they were required to listen and internalize what they were taught by elders. That limited their creative and innovative mental development, thus leading to slow development of a traditional society.

             In traditional society some members were prevented from eating certain types of food, such as eggs, fruits, chicken, fish, and milk. In those societies if the forefathers did not eat such types of foods it was generalized that even the subsequent generations should not eat. Some beliefs were attached to such foods for example if eggs were to be eaten by expectant mothers it was believed that she would give birth to a bald-headed child. This was a big misconception since it was not realistically true.

              In traditional societies, women were seen as the source of labour, they did not own means of production neither did they take part in decision making, but men heavily exploited their labour. Even in learning segregation took place as womwn were isolated from men and were supposed to learn skills realated to home management, mid wifery, healthcare weaving and farming. On the other hand men attended to those skills considered irrelevant to women, these included; masonry, building, or fishery.{ibid)

 

          African indigenous education is relevant to the modern education today in the following cases.

 

          African indigenouos education is the basis for the foundation of Education for Self-relience in modern education. During the establishment of ESR in 1967, Nyerere recalled how the traditonal education was relevant to the community life-especially learning by doing, and included it in modern education. Learners pareticiation in learning is highly encouraged by morden educators.

          Furthermore, it prepared its recepients  for life duties in their societies, likewise modern education is no exceptonal. It prepares the learners to enter the world of work, and more specifically it changes with time. For example the introduction of information and communication technology course in colleges and universities responds to the current demands of information and communication technology, traditional education also changed in response to societal problems, like how to combart the emerging diseases, wild animals, enemies etc.

           African indigenouos education has also greately influenced the need for development of more appropriate problem solving educational curriculumand the promotion of life-long education. Some aspects of African indigenouos education have continued to feature in policy and practice of education.

 

             Basically African indigenouos education managed to provide education to all members of the community, althogh it differed from tribe to tribe. With the coming of western education however African indigenouos education was seen inadequate to contribete to modern world’s demads and the need for new skills. The isolationism of  African indigenouos education was broken up as societis were now introduced into a larger world of modern knowledge and technology.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

REFERENCES

 

Cameroon, J. and Dodd. W. (1970) Society, Schools and Progress in Tanzania 1919-1970.

                       London: James Currey 

Kenyatta, (1961), Facing Mountain Kenya. The Tribal Life of the Kikuyu. London: Secker

                     and Warburg Ltd

 

Mushi PA K. (2009) History of Education in Tanzania. Dar-es-Salaam: Dar-es-Salaam

                    University Press

 

Nyerere, J.K(1975)Education Never Ends, the 1969 and 1970 New Years Eve address to

               the Nation in NAEAT Adult Education and Development in Tanzania.

               Dar-es-Salaam.

 

  Nyerere J.K (1979a) Education for Self Reliance in Hinzen, H and Hundsdorfer, V H

                (Eds) Education for Liberation and Development. The Tanzania Experience Hamburg

                      and Evans

 

www.eric.ed.gov/../recordDetail visited on 10th Jan 2011

 

 

“I Have a Dream” Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. (1929-1968)

Literary devices are the tools and techniques of language that authors use to convey meaning. Skilled use of literary devices brings richness and clarity to a text.. http//www.udledition.cast.org/craft-id.html

Literary devices refer to specific aspects of literature in the sense of its universal function as an art form, which expresses ideas through language which can organize, identify, interpret and /or analyze. Braiman (2007)

Literary devices are the tools a literary writer uses in creating an effective literary work and which also help in distinguishing a literary work from a non- literary work. These literary devices are used not only to literary texts, but also always used in speech, to make the speech effective and appealing to the listeners of the speech.

Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. (1929-1968) was one of the principal leaders of the American civil rights movement and a prominent advocate of non-violent protests in America. One of his historical watersheds is the speech “I Have a Dream” that he delivered in the historical march on 28th August 1963 at the Lincoln Memorial Washington DC.

To make his speech effective, and leave a memorable mark in the hearts of his audience, Dr Martin enriched his speech with numerous literary techniques, to engage his listeners. He used a lot of literary device throughout his speech some of which will be discussed in this work. These devices are the foundations of Dr. Martin’s unique and effective style.

The following are the chief literary devices that he used to make his speech sink deeper in the hearts of the Negroes but also the Whites who were the target enemy.

 Dr Martin, used repetition throughout the speech. Repetition is a literary device in which sound, words, phrases, lines or stanzas are repeated for emphasis in a poem or other literary works. Chin (2003).  King’s speech is a perfect representation of this. In his speech Dr has often repeated the word “dream” to put an emphasis on it. The following few lines in paragraph 17 illustrates this;

“And so even though we face the difficulties of today and tomorrow, I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream’.

 

In the last concluding remarks he says;

“Free at last! Free at last!

. Thank God Almighty, we are free at last.”

Also some individual words have been repeated several times in the speech depending on the importance he attaches to them. For example

  •  freedom (20 times)
  • we (30 times), our (17 times), you (8 times)
  • nation (10 times), America (5 times), American (4 times)
  • justice (8 times) and injustice (3 times)
  • dream (11 times)

Dr. has also repeated the title “I Have a Dream” several times, followed by the things that he knows people are hoping for. He wants his listeners to see this visualization becoming reality.

Another literary device Dr Martin used is Metaphor. This is a literary device that makes direct comparison between two unlike things. It suggests that one thing is another thing or is equal to another thing. Metaphors create vivid descriptions with few words as the subject of comparison takes on the qualities of the thing with which it is compared. Dr Martin has used extended metaphors and contrasting metaphors. For example in the paragraphs 4 & 5 he uses the metaphor in describing the promissory note (check) and insufficient funds.

[4] In a sense we’ve come to our nation’s capital to cash a check. When the architects of our republic wrote the magnificent words of the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence, they were signing a promissory note to which every American was to fall heir. This note was a promise that all men, yes, black men as well as white men, would be guaranteed the “unalienable Rights” of “Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.” It is obvious today that America has defaulted on this promissory note, insofar as her citizens of color are concerned. Instead of honoring this sacred obligation, America has given the Negro people a bad check, a check which has come back marked “insufficient funds.”

[5] But we refuse to believe that the bank of justice is bankrupt. We refuse to believe that there are insufficient funds in the great vaults of opportunity of this nation. And so, we’ve come to cash this check, a check that will give us upon demand the riches of freedom and the security of justice.

In the above paragraph, Dr Martin uses the metaphors of promissory note (check) and insufficient funds (bouncing) to engage the listener, since America is a capitalist society, so this metaphor is well understood by his audience due to its familiarity. He illustrates the injustice that the Americans have placed upon the colored citizens in contrasting idea of moral debt (owed by the country) to a financial debt.

He also refers to Americans as heirs to which this debt is owed, to signify that all the people are entitled to their inalienable and unquestionable rights. He also refers to freedom as riches; gradualism as tranquilizing drug. All these were meant to impact actions; the action cannot be gradual as it cannot be effective.

 Dr Martin has also used contrasting metaphors to highlight the contrast between two abstract concepts. Writers use metaphors to associate speech concepts with concrete images and emotions  Dlugan (2009)

. For Example Dr. contrasts dark and deep valley with (segregation) and sunlit path as (racial justice).

Other contrasting metaphors include

Joyous daybreak to end the long night of captivity (paragraph 2)

“The Negro lives in a lonely island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity” (paragraph 3).

“..rise from the dark and desolate valley of segregation to the sunlight path of racial justice.” (Paragraph 6)

“The sweltering summer of the Negros legitimate discontent will not pass until there is an invigorating autumn of freedom and equality. (Paragraph 7}

“Weltering with the heat of oppression will be transformed into the oasis of freedom and justice.”

“The whirlwind of revolts will continue to shake the foundations of our nation until the bright day of justice emerges”. (Paragraph 7) 

 

Dr. Martin has also used allusion. Evoking historical and literary references is a powerful speech writing technique which can be executed explicitly (a direct quotation) or implicitly (allusion). Allusion is a literary device in which the writer or speaker refers either directly or indirectly to a person, event, or thing in history to a work of art or literature. (ibid). Also a referent to a familiar person, event, place in history, literature or myth. Purves & Quattrini (1997) Dr. has used allusions like;

“Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation” (paragraph 2)

This refers to Lincoln, given that King was speaking in front of the Lincoln Memorial.

“Life liberty and pursuit of happiness”- is a reference to United States Declaration of Independence.

“It came as joyous daybreak to end the long night of captivity”.

 

Frequently, Dr Martin also made use of Anaphora.  Anaphora (repeating words at the beginning of neighboring clauses) is a commonly used rhetorical device. Repeating the words twice sets the pattern, and further repetitions emphasize the pattern and increase the rhetorical effect. (ibid) “I have a dream” is repeated in eight successive sentences. But this is just one of eight occurrences of anaphora in this speech. By order of introduction, here are the key phrases:

“One hundred years later…” [paragraph 3]

“Now is the time…” [paragraph 6]

“We must…” [paragraph 8]

“We can never (cannot) be satisfied…” [paragraph 13]

“Go back to…” [paragraph 14]

“I Have a Dream…” [paragraphs 16 through 24]

“With this faith, …” [paragraph 26]

“Let freedom ring (from) …” [paragraphs 27 through 41]   for example.

[32]And so let freedom ring from the prodigious hilltops of New Hampshire.

[33] Let freedom ring from the mighty mountains of New York.

[34] Let freedom ring from the heightening Alleghenies of Pennsylvania.

[35] Let freedom ring from the snow-capped Rockies of Colorado.

[36] Let freedom ring from the curvaceous slopes of California.

[37] But not only that. Let freedom ring from Stone Mountain of Georgia.

[38] Let freedom ring from Lookout Mountain of Tennessee.

[39] Let freedom ring from every hill and molehill of Mississippi.

 

Dr. Martin used parallelism/parallel structures. This is the repetition of the same pattern of words or phrases within a sentence or passage to show that two or more ideas have the same level of importance. From http//udledictions.cast.org/craft_Id_parallel.html or the repetition of words, phrases, or sentences that have the same grammatical structure or that re-state a similar idea. In most cases Dr. has used parallelism to organize ideas within a sentence or within longer passages.  For example within sentences he says;

Go back to Mississippi, go back to Alabama, go back to South Carolina, go back to Georgia, go back to Louisiana, go back to the slums and ghettos of our northern cities, knowing that somehow this situation can and will be changed (paragraph 14)…. also we will be able to speed up that day when all of God’s children, black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual:

In longer passages Dr. uses parallelism to organize and emphasize hi messages by showing his listeners that freedom fighting is a national wide issue. His repetitions also create a kind of rhythm that works well in public speaking when he says:

[32] And so let freedom ring from the prodigious hilltops of New Hampshire.

[33] Let freedom ring from the mighty mountains of New York.

[34] Let freedom ring from the heightening Alleghenies of Pennsylvania.

[35] Let freedom ring from the snow-capped Rockies of Colorado.

[36] Let freedom ring from the curvaceous slopes of California.

[37] But not only that. Let freedom ring from Stone Mountain of Georgia.

 

Dr. has also used similes in his speech. A simile is a figure of speech that make a comparison between two dissimilar things and uses the words “like”, “as”, “than” and ‘resemble”. (ibid) This makes the speech vivid by comparing their subjects with known things or events. Effective similes make the readers visualize what is being described. In Dr’s speech the similes are manifested in the last sentence of the 13th paragraph when Dr. says;

No, no, we are not satisfied, and we will not be satisfied until “justice rolls down like waters and righteousness like a mighty stream.”

Dr. Martin has made use of imagery in his speech. Imagery is a language which describes something in details using word to substitute for and create sensory stimulation, including visual imagery, sound imagery and tactile imagery. Braiman (2007). This also refers to word pictures which writers use to help evoke an emotional response in readers. He tries to make his listeners visualize, feel, and taste the kind of the future he is talking about. The title “I Have a Dream” itself is an image of future, the kind of future the American society should aspire for. But additionally, Dr. has used the following imagery.

Visual imagery in paragraph 6, Dr. makes us visualize the “dark and desolate valley of segregation”. In fact, how the Negros have been put under the embarrassing condition, if we are to consider the situation in the valley with darkness, and how it really looks in our mind. Consequently, he adds yet another imagery which makes us visualize the vision of hope. Dr uses the word “to the sunlight path of racial justice

Another visual imagery is found in paragraph, 6. Dr refers to racial injustice as “quicksands” and brotherhood as “a solid rock” this creates to us a strong visual and physical image, to these non physical terms.  The term ‘quicksands’ represents unstable existence, while on the other hand “the solid rock” represents strength and stability, it stands for steadiness and support. Dr. says

“Now is the time to lift our nation from the quicksands of racial injustice to the solid rock of brotherhood”

He uses the tactile imagery (imagery of feelings) to make his listeners feel the kind of sufferings they experience in different places. He compares them with heat. As heat is a familiar thing to them, they feel the pains of racial injustice and oppression the same way one may feel heat. Dr says.

“ [19] I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice.”

Personification has been used to concretize some of the ideas. Personification is a figure of speech that attributes human characteristics to objects, animals or natural forces. Purves & Quattrini (1997). Inanimate things are made to behave like human beings. This helps to connect the reader with the thing that is personified. In King’s speech this is manifested in paragraph 4 when Dr. refers to America (a country) as if is a human being, who has betrayed the Negros and oppresses them instead of directly referring to White men. Dr says:  

.” It is obvious today that America has defaulted on this promissory note, insofar as her citizens of color are concerned. Instead of honoring this sacred obligation, America has given the Negro people a bad check…”

Again personification is used in paragraph 17 when he says “that one day the nation (America) will rise up and live out the true meaning…” America is hereby being compared to a human being who can rise up and live the true meaning of his creed. Dr says:

“I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed”

Dr uses the paradox in paragraph 3. Paradox is a figure of speech that contains two statements or assertions that, according to logic, cannot be true, yet the figure links them in a way that creates a new meaning, one that defies logic but works on situation. Purves & Quattrini (1997). Dr says;

“..the Negro is still languished in the corners of American society and finds himself an exile in his own land”

In the above sentence, logically speaking, one cannot be in exile while he is still in his own land, as the true meaning of the word exile is. But the situation described, is the one that makes us see as if the Negros are in exile, since they have nothing to enjoy in their own land.

Generally, Figures of speech are the effective tools of making the speech alive and appealing to the innermost emotions of the hearer and reader. They are speech building blocks to the writer, as bricks are to the mason. They help to make a speech interesting to follow but also impact the actions to the audience. However, the speech writers are advised not to include so many figures of speech since they may confuse the audience, when trying to digest the message in the speech. Reverend Dr Martin Luther King Jr. has proved a very successful speech writer as his speech has lived beyond its setting to be remembered even after his death.

SLAVE NARRATIVES

Slave narrative is an account of the life, or a major portion of the life, of a fugitive or former slave, either written or orally related by the slave personally. (Andrews 2011)

Slave narratives are the biographical and autobiographical tales of bondage and freedom either written or told by former slaves (Wiggins & Alexandria 2005).

So generally slave narratives can be understood as the non-fictional account of the life of the African-Americans recorded or narrated by themselves which set a foundation for the birth of what came to be known as African-American literature.

These narratives include the following, ‘The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass: An American Slave’ (1818-1895) in 1845, ‘The life of John Thompson, A Fugitive Slave; Containing His History of Twenty-Five Years in Bondage and his Providential Escape’. (1856), ‘A narrative of some Remarkable Incidents, in the Life of Solomon Bayley Formerly a Slave’ (1825) just to mention a few.

These slave narratives have acted as a central pool from which African-American literature has emerged and descended. Most of what constitute the content of African-American literature is the depiction from the narratives which have given the modern writers a historical documentary source to develop their works from.

As Andrew (2011) puts it “slave narratives comprise one of the most influential traditions in American literature, shaping the form and themes of some of the most celebrated and controversial writing both fiction and autobiography in the history of the United States”.

The contribution of these slave narratives to African-American literature can be viewed in the following light/respect.

These autobiographies/narratives give voice to generations of black people who despite being written off by whites’ south literature, still found a way to bequeath a literary legacy of enormous collective significance of the south and the United States (Adams 2004). It is these narratives which have shown way on what African-American literature should be based on. They have provided resources for those who never lived during the era of slavery to know what happened and how slavery looked like then produce literary works portraying slavery as condition of extreme physical, intellectual, emotional and spiritual deprivation, a kind of hell on earth, then production of literary works.

These slave narratives gave rise to novels implicitly or explicitly intended to defend the myth of the South. The narratives like ‘The confession of Nat Turner’ (1831) gave birth to a novel such as John Pendleton, Kennedy’s “Swallow Barn” (1832) traditionally regarded as the first important plantation novel (ibid).

Both intra-textually and extra-textually therefore these slave narratives from the 19thc onwards/to present was a tool for dialogue over slavery and racial issues between whites and blacks in North and South. This dialogue has helped in production of many literary works.

The slave narratives were one of the few resources that readers and in fact artists of the late 19thc and probably contemporary writers could examine to get a reliable first hand portrayal of what slavery has actually been like. The modern novels for example the ones written by Margaret Walker “Jubilee” (1966), “Dessa Rose” by Sherley Ann Williams (1986), “Beloved” by John Morison(1987) and “Middle Passage” by Charles Johnson(1990) are in fact the products developed from slave narratives like ‘Black Boy’ of Richard Wrights of (1945) and ‘Autobiography of Malcolm X’ of (1965). These shaped the production of the literary novels of post World War II (ibid).

Slave narratives fill in the gap and silence about African-American history and identity. A careful reading of one specific narrative allows one to see how as a literary genre, slave narratives are in fact pieces of history and community memory. It is this need of identity that gave the African-American a spirit to write and identify themselves as distinct people with their own culture and literature.

It was also done to refute the prevailing 19thc cultural sentiments that argued that the enslaved person did not have the higher reasoning and intellectual skills capable of producing a sustained piece of literature. So the existence of a multitude of authentic first person slave narratives helped to shatter racist culture and pseudo-scientific convention.

The slave narratives by themselves eventually became an integral part of African-American literature. It is said that some 6000 former slaves from North America and Caribbean wrote accounts of their lives with about 150 of these published as separate books or pamphlets. Most of them are now recognized as the most literary of all 19thc writings by African-Americans with two of the best known being ‘Frederick Douglass Autobiography’ and ‘Incidence of the Life of slave Girl’ by Harriet Jacobs (1861).(Wikipedia the free encyclopedia)

The slave narratives have inspired some Black writers at least during the early years of African-American literature to prove they were the equals of Europeans American authors. As Henry Louis Gates, Jr has said “it is fair to describe the subtext of the history of black letters at this urge to refute the claim that because blacks had no written traditions they were bearers of an inferior culture (ibid)

One of the most significant contributions of slave narrative genre is that it gives the victimized and oppressed a space to tell their own stories and to forcefully contradict prevailing myths that African-American were satisfied with their status as perpetual servants. That’s why a term “written by himself” was used to assume that subsequent narrative was not ‘ghostwritten’ by white hands and is indeed the product of someone who has lived the harsh reality of life in slavery.

So the modern or subsequent literary artists picked the information from these narratives and created literary works with a clear picture in mind of what slavery was and to refute the idea that they were well-kept and happy with their roles as lifelong servants to white families.

Slave narrative offered students an opportunity to make connections between the past and their lives. Polsky (1976) supports this contention when he says “the educational content formed in the genre affords many insights into the workings of slavery in this country –common ordeals, living conditions, workloads and punishment, feeling of fear and expectation of freedom”. Most narratives have exciting plots, many times featuring daring escapes.

These features get students interested and keep them motivated as they want to know what happens next (Wiggins and Alexandria 2005). New Historicism believe that “works of literature are simultaneously influenced by and influencing reality” and that “literature refers to and is referred to by things outside itself (Murfin 2000:266).

Generally the slave narratives can be considered the mother of what came to be known as African-American Literature. It was a product of deliberate efforts of African-Americans to identify and define themselves within the whites’ society as distinct people with their culture, traditions, history and literature.

This autobiographical account has given birth to many literary works we know today as body of African-American literature. Some of these are the 19th c American novels ‘Uncle Tom’s Cabin’ (1852) by Harriet Beecher Stowe, and ‘Huckleberry Finn’ (1884) by Mark Twain, others are “The confessions of Nat Turner (1967) by William Styron and ‘Beloved’ by Toni Morrison (1987) just to mention but a few. This is how African-American literature came into existence.

References

Adams, E .M (2004) North American Slave American Narratives: An introduction to the Slave Narratives. North Carolina: The university of North Carolina at Cape Hill in http://docsouth. Unc. Edu/neh/ intro.html

Andrews, W (2011) Slave Narrative “Ecyclopedia Britanian”. Online in http://www.bricannica.com /EBchecked/topic/548224/slave narrative web 09 Dec 2011
Douglass, F (2004) Narrative of the life of Fredrick Douglass: 1845. Clayton: Prestwick House

Mufiri, C. R (2000) “The New Historicism and The Awakening” In Walker Trancy A. ed The Awakening by Kate Chopin. Bedford: Macmillan pub.

Polsky, M(1976) The American Slave Narrative: Dramatic Resource material for the Classroom The journal of Negro Education 422:166-178

Wiggins, G, and Alexandra J. M C. T: ASCD ©2005 Frederick Douglass The narrative of The life of Frederick Douglass; An American slave written by himself (1845) in http;// http://www.ascd.org