Presented by. Daniel T Magogo.
A: THE TITLE OF THE STUDY.
HEADTEACHERS’ PERCEPTIONS ON THEIR ROLES AND EMERGING CHALLENGES UNDER PRIMARY EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME (PEDP) IMPLIMENTATION IN TANZANIA: A CASE STUDY OF MKURANGA DISTRICT.
Written by: Perpetua Wilbert Vengue.
MASTER OF ARTS IN EDUCATION, THE UNIVERSIITY OF DODOMA
B: THE OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY AND HYPOTHESIS/QUESTIONS.
1.4: Specifically the study has the following objectives;
(i.) To examine the extent of difference to performance in head teachers’ roles.
(ii.) To examine the perception of head teacher in their roles under PEDP.
(iii.) To determine challenges facing head teachers in practicing their roles under PEDP.
1.5: Research Questions.
The study intended to answer the following questions.
(i.) To which extent do head teachers understand and practice their roles under PEDP?
(ii.) How do head teacher perceptions of their roles influence their practice within PEDP implementation?
(iii.) What challenges do head teacher face when practicing their duties under PEDP implementation?
C: ANALYSIS OF LITERATURE REVIEW.
The literature review found in this chapter has several sub-titles as identified below with their subtitle number as listed in the above titles dissertation title which relate to the research objectives and hypothesis question as follows;
The literature review is going to give the theoretical stance of the study, definition of key terms, concept of educational administration and leadership, role of head teachers and their practice has been discussed. This introduction show the reader in a nutshell the content that will be covered to fulfill the needs listen in the objective and the answers for the proposed hypothesis and questions of the study.
2.2: The Theoretical Stance.
This study is influenced by classical management theory of administration, where an idea of organization seems to be hierarchical in nature of authority.
Bebyegeya(2002), contends that the original concepts of classical management lay four principles which are line and staff span of control unit of command and delegation of responsibility. It is assumed that those at the top of the organization have insight and full understanding of workers and everything that is taking place at the shop floor.
For that case head teacher needs to have knowledge and skills to foster school system.
In the field of research everything has its own background, and there are some theoretical perspectives that can guide the study of the particular research title. This research is about the headmasters roles which are under management category of implementation of organizational goals. There fore the researcher related the theoretical stance to the classical management theory as it relates to the research study which is the role of the headmasters as the administrators and the managers.
2.3: Definition of Key Terms.
Bagandashwa(1993) defines perception both as experience of gaining sensory information about the world of people, things and events on one hand, and psychological process to be accomplished on the other hand. In this study, the term is used to mean head teacher, awareness, views and opinions on the process of implication of (PEDP)
Other definitions were on management by Phatak (1989) and administration by Adams cited in Ozigi (1995)
This sub-title relate to research objectives and research questions as one can not move to the detailed explanation of some thing which the reader of that particular literature is no aware of. The explanation of the key terms found in the research is the prior stage of implementing the research objectives.
2.4: The Concept of Educational Administration.
As dread being defined on educational administration, Educational administration is concerned with the development and implementation of appropriate programs for teaching and learning. According to Babyegeya (2002) educational administration is responsible with making available and managing resources that are necessary to implement teaching and learning.
This subtitle marks the beginning of the researcher to explore and implement research objectives and in other way round to answer the research questions. For example the first question asks “To which extent do head teachers understand and practice their roles under PEDP?” where by this sub-title introduces us to the knowledge of understand about on the role of a head teacher as administrator.
2.5: The Roles of the Head Teachers.
The school administrator is essentially a leader of the staff and student of the school Babyegeya (2002) express that, head teacher become both administrators and professional leaders due to their responsibility. As already been mentioned school heads perform different responsibility include the planning, organizing and managing the school resources.
Among other roles head teacher are expected to do the following main roles.
2.5.1: Monitoring the Curriculum Implementation
2.5.2: Facilitation of Teaching and Learning.
2.5.3: Insuring the Availability of the Learning and Teaching Materials.
2.5.4: Maintaining Pupils and Staff Welfare.
2.5.5: Maintaining School Physical Facilities.
2.5.6: Communication Enhancement.
2.5.7: Delegation of Duties.
2.5.8: Disciplinary Issue.
From this sub-title we can be able to trace the sources of the challenges that headmasters face in implementing their roles in their workplaces as it shows directly the responsibility of the headmaster as a head of organization.
2.6: Essential of Head Teachers Roles and Their Practice.
Basing on this concise review, head teachers are executive of the school. According to Omari (1995) management can make the work climate more favourable and challenging and can build cohesiveness between staffs, student and the community.
Success and failure of school and of the education system in general, among other things depends on leadership and administration. Babyegeya (2002).
In this subtitle the essentials of the head teachers are output that the community and other educational stake holders can physically observe, this bringd us to the concept that the head teachers perceptions of their roles can easy be measured through the out put that the particular headteacher gives out. This concept takes us to the second objective and the second research question centered on the perception of the headmasters on their roles.
D: Reference study.
In this dissertation the references are shown in short form in side of the research. These short forms appeared differently according to where they appeared in within the paragraph. For when they appeared at the beginning of the text only the year was enclosed in the brackets leaving outside the bracket the name of the author. For example.
- Bagandashwa, (1993) defines perception both as …
- … The school administrator is essentially a leader of the staff and student of the school Babyegeya (2002)…
And the same references appeared in their full forms at the end of the text. They are written beginning with the sir name of the author followed by his or her initials, then comes the year of publication followed by the name of the book (in italic), then publisher of the book followed by the name of the place of publication. The following is examples of references as appeared at the end of the dissertation in the reference section arranged in alphabetical ascending order.
Babyegeya, E. (2002). Educational Planning and Administration: The Open University of Tanzania. Dar-es-Salaam.
Coombs, P.H. (1968). The World Educational Crisis: A System in Education: Oxford University Press. London.
Ozigi, A. (1995) A Hand Back On School Administration Mac Milan Education Ltd. London.
THE ROLE OF GOOD HEALTH AND NUTRITION IN INFLUENCING PRIMARY SCHOOL STUDENT’S ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE.
DESIGNED BY, MAGOGO, Daniel T.
The University Of Dodoma.
1.1: Study objectives.
The objectives of this study are as follows;
(i.) To find out to what extent are the teachers and students in primary schools awareness of the importance of good health and nutrition to the academic performance.
(ii.) To explain and show in detail the nutrients which are required for good health and nutrition to facilitate good academic performance in primary schools.
(iii.) To show the important advantages of good health and nutrition to the primary school students’ academic performance.
1.2: Study questions.
The study intends to answer the following questions.
(i.) Are the teachers and students aware of that they should consider good health and nutrition to the academic performance in primary schools?
(ii.) Do the teacher and students aware of the nutrients/content which are required for good health and nutrition to foster good academic performance in primary schools?
(iii.) Do the educational stakeholders know the importance of good health and nutrition to the primary school academic performance?
The literature review is going to give the theoretical stance of the study, important facts about good health and nutrition and the necessity of taking it to consideration good health and nutrition to foster good academic performance in primary school students. But before that there are important terms to be defined as follows;
1.3.3: Academic performance.
1.4: The theoretical stance.
1.5: Important facts about good health and nutrition.
The following pyramid shows the proportional amount of food which contains nutrients that are important to the good health and nutrition. Where by the ration of the amount of food that a person should at least take in day is show from the top part of the pyramid to the lower part, where the privelage of the amount of food that should be taken decreases as the pyramid goes higher. This means that it is very important for a person to take bread, cereal, and vegetable groups at the bottom than taking fats, oil, and sweets at the top of the pyramid. (Graham, G.1980)
Figure 1.1: Food and Nutrition Guide Pyramid.
Concepts about nutrition as proposed by Graham, G. (1980)
- Physical activities and good nutrition are the team for good health and well-being
- The body needs food for energy; the body needs energy for activities.
- Food is the fuel that makes activity possible; too little fuel, too little energy
- Some fat is essential to supply energy and to insulate and cushion vital organs.
- Carbohydrate supply energy to muscles for muxmum performance. They are main fuel source for the muscles.
- Proteins are needed to form strong bones and muscles. They are the buildant blocks of body tissues.
- Water makes up 50-70 percent of total body weight and is critical for surviving. The more active you are, the more water you need.
- Good nutrition is essential for people of all ages.
- The amount of energy a person need depend on body size, age, gender, health status and activity.
Teachers should remember to model good nutrition and fitness habits in their own lifestyle and make the evident in the environment in which they work with children.
A number of factors have contributed to the state of poor nutrition among school age children. A large number of children are responsible for their own meals, especially breakfast and after school snacks. Children do not choose fruits and vegetables as a favorite snack; neither do young children have the knowledge or skills to prepare health meal or snacks. For many children, the foods needed for good nutrition are not available in their homes. (Graham, G.1980)
Thus by choice and by circumstances many children are the victims of poor nutrition.
All too often the quickest meal is one from a drive-though one that is high in fats and low in the balanced of nutrients needed for good health.
Although elementary age children may not be interested in nutrition for good health (after all they are immortal) we have found that they are very interested in nutrition as if relates to running, jumping, throwing and being a better athlete and good academician in learning environment.
Children at primary education level need and understand of the food guide pyramid in (figure 1.1.), the teaching of good nutrition as a wellness concept, with its’ link to physical activities as well as good health, makes it an ideal concept for integrating it with good academic performance in the classroom situation.
Thus the desire to good academic performance of primary school students opens the door to educating children about the importance of eating balanced diet and insisting on fruits and vegetables and decreasing fats and motivates them to maintain a balance of physical activity and nutrition.
1.6: Advantages of Good Health and Nutrition to Academic Performance.
The following table shows the source of different nutrient and their advantages or roles in the brain function which helps in better academic performance of the student in the primary schools level.
Source Of Nutrient And Their Roles In Brain Functioning
Common Food Source
Role In Cognitive Function.
Iron Liver, spinach, asparagus, clams, beans, peas, enriched bread, cereal
- Transport oxygen to brain
- Involved in red blood cell formation
- Deficiencies can impaire the children’s ability to concentrate(Pollitt, 1933)
Protein Meat, fish, seafood, eggs, dairy protein, grains producs, legumes
- Provides the amino acid tyrosine needed for the release of key neurotransmittwrs, resulting in increased alertness and motivation. (Wurtman, 1988)
Fat Oil, salad dressings, butter, margarine, lard layers on meat, most fats are hidden because they are added during food preparation
- In combination with protein, sustains glucose breakdown longer
- Carrier of fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K and essential fatty acids, which form nerve cell membranes.
- Over- or under-consumption can trigger a neurotransmitter imbalance (Garrison & Somer, 1995).
CholineProduced in the body and provided in several food
sources: egg yolks, meat, wheat germ, peanuts, soybeans
- Needed to produce acetylcholine
- Low levels have been associated with memory loss.
- May improve memory performance (Mark & Mark, 1989).
B VitaminsB1(thiamin): enriched breads and cereals, pork, peas, pecans
B6: chicken, fish, whole grains, egg yolks, bananas, avocados
B12: liver, meat, eggs, dairy
- B1: promotes the body’s ability to use glucose. Deficiency can result in mood changes and reduced attention span (Garrison & Somer, 1995).
- B6: involved in acetylcholine metabolism and activity. Deficiency can impair memory (Garrison & Somer, 1995).
- B12: supports formation and maintenance of myelin sheaths that surround nerve cells. Inadequate intake results in memory loss, confusion, and impaired physical function (Garrison & Somer, 1995).
(vitamins A & E)
Vitamin A: liver, eggs, cheese, milk, yellow and orange vegetables Vitamin E: dark leafy vegetables, cabbage, eggs, tomatoes
- Vitamin A helps cell growth and fights infection.
- Vitamins E & A protect brain and body against free radicals, which cause cell destruction.
- Vitamin E deficiency can affect the nervous system by interfering with the normal nerve myelination (Garrison & Somer, 1995).
The simple activity that can help increase student attention, decrease illness and absenteeism, and increase test scores is eating breakfast. Breakfast consumption reduces the physical symptoms of stomach pain, headache, muscles tension, and fatigue, all of which interfere with learning. Making sure that students have breakfast goes long way toward facilitating their success. School personnel should recognize that they have a unique opportunity to reinforce the importance of breakfast, whether consumed at home or through their school’s breakfast program. Several researches shows that children who eat breakfast have improved attention in late-morning task performance, retrieve information more quickly and accurately, make fewer errors in problem-solving activities and concentrate better and perform more complex task.
Garrison, R., & Somer, E., (1995), The Nutrition Desk Reference. New Canaan, CT: Keats Publishing.
Graham, G (1980) Children Moving, Reflexive Approach To Teaching Physical Education: (5th Ed): Mayfield Publishing Company. USA
Mark, J., & Mark, V. (1989). Brain Power. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Wurtman, J. (1988), Managing Your Mind And Mood Through Food. New York: Harper & Row.